Introduction to objective, scope and outcome of the subject.
Fluids: Definition, Ideal fluids, real fluids, Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids.
Properties of Fluids: Units of measurement, Mass density, Specific weight, Specific volume, Specific Gravity, Viscosity, Surface tension and Capillarity, Compressibility and Elasticity.
Hydrostatics : Pressure at a point in a static fluid; pressure variation in an incompressible static fluid; atmospheric pressure, Gauge pressure, vacuum pressure, absolute pressure, Manometers Bourdon pressure gauge.
Buoyancy: Forces acting on immersed plane surface. Centre of pressure, forces on curved surfaces. Conditions of equilibrium for floating bodies, meta-centre and met centric height experimental and analytical determination of met centric height.
Equilibrium of Fluid particles and flow: Fluid mass subjected to horizontal and vertical acceleration and uniform rotation.
Hydro-kinematics : Types of Flows : Steady and unsteady, uniform and nonuniform, stream lines, path lines, stream tubes, principles of conservation of mass, equation of continuity, acceleration of fluid particles local and connective, Rotational and irrational motions, free and forced vortex, circulation and voracity velocity potential and stream function, elementary treatment of flow net. Euler’s equations of motion and integration of Euler’s equations, Bernoulli’s equation for incompressible Fluids, assumptions in Bernoulli’s equation, Energy correction factor.
Applications of Bernoulli’s equation: Pitot tube, Venturimeter, orifice meter, orifices & mouth pieces, time of emptying of tanks by orifices, sharp edged rectangular, triangular and trapezoidal notches, Francis formula. Velocity of approach. End contractions Cippoletti Weir, time of emptying reservoirs by
Momentum Equation and its Application: Development of momentum equation by control volume concept, Momentum correction factor, applications
– Borda’s mouth pieces, sudden enlargement of flow, pressure on flat plates,
Flow Through Pipes: Laminar flow, Reynolds experiment, transition from laminar to turbulent flow. Turbulent Flow : Laws of fluid friction, friction factor Moodys diagram, loss of head due to friction and other causes. Hydraulic gradient, total energy line Chezy’s, Darcy’s and Manning’s formula, flow through parallel pipes and pipes in series, flow through branched pipes. Flow along a bypass. Power transmission through pipe, condition for maximum